Macro photography is one of the easiest ways to get your subject, but one of the most difficult forms of photography to carry out . You do not need super expensive lenses (of course you could use them, the closer you can focus on your subject, the more expensive the lens than will be), you can do it in your own garden if you have an interesting topic, it can give you very surprising results.Actually, you can think of a macro photo for each photographic subject. Everyday objects can give, in close-up, often a very interesting topic. Especially if you can not see what it is.
Macro photography comes down to taking close-ups of everyday objects. Most cameras have a standard macro mode, often referred to as a tulip icon. For macro photography there are two values of interest. The first is the focusing distance of the lens, the closer you can still sharpen your subject, the better. For SLR cameras are special macro lenses and washers for sale, but often, on a telephoto zoom (up to 150mm) or a 50mm lens, there is also already a tulip icon. This indicates that the focusing distance of the lens is close enough to get small objects in large image. If there is a tulip on a 50mm lens with a value of 0.45m, it indicates that the lens can bring the focus on the subject from a distance of 45cm. The best is to have a real macro lens, a Canon 100mm macrolens still alows a sharp focus within a few centimeters.
The dificulty of macro photography is that because you are so close to your subject and you aperture is wide open, you only have a few millimeters to focus (with values like F1.8 or F2.8 focus, on those distances, the background will quickly get blurry). The smallest movement (of the photographer or the subject) shifts the focus back to a point where you’d rather not have it. Then you could select a smaller aperture, which increases the focus area, but often your aperture has to be wide open, because otherwise you will not have enough light. Both problems can be defused with a tripod. This allows you to precisely control where you want to have the focus and it makes sure that your camera will not move when you take your photo, and because you are working with a tripod, you can also have a slower shutter speed and you can therefore choose a smaller aperture to increase the focus of the pictures.
You can use a large tripod, but there are also very small stands of 10cm with three legs that already work. What also works well is just lie down on the ground when you want to photograph small objects.
The cheapest way to make macro photos (if you do not have lenses that are suitable for focusing on short distance) is with a compact camera. For the same price of a good macro lens, you have cameras that easily fit in your pocket and which are perfect to focus from a close distance.
For SLR cameras it can be worthwhile to first look at a close-up lens. A close-up lens is actually a filter (such as a polarization filter) that is screwed to the front of your lens and which makes it possible to set focus closer. The disadvantage is that edges blur may show up at open aperture and / or full zoom. Or else you could look for a 50mm lens, these can often also get near sharp posing and the entry level model is not so expensive.
Do you have a topic that is quickly gone if you get too close (flies, butterflies, etc.), it is convenient to use a zoom lens, possibly with a teleconverter that can increase the zoom factor by a further factor of 1.4, 2.0. Again, the lens performance will diminish quickly, especially if you go for the cheap version, and you will quickly need a tripod to get enough sharpness in the picture
With the camera on a tripod, putting the plant on a chair and holding
a white sheet of paper behind it, you can pull your subject out of the background.
The most beautiful thing of macro photos is that you can get a really nice blur in the background by playing with the aperture. In this way you can really highlight a subject, but you can also make creative choices by deciding if you might or might not bring focus on certain parts of the subject. Take notice that with macro photos it may sometimes be necessary to use relatively small apertures (high values), if you want to get a totally sharp subject (not even to get the background sharp). Try to experiment with that if your subject can not run away, the best aperture depends on the distance to the subject, the distance between the subject and background, the zoom factor, the availability of a tripod (amount of light to make the photo unmoved) , etc.
And do not forget the wide-angle lens, using this you can often focus very close by (it is not a true macro) while showing more of the environment of your subject which will allow a viewer to get a better idea of the environment of your subject.
Finally, a tip for photographing moving subjects, often these are insects. Because they are so flexible, you need a fast shutter speed and you have to keep a greater distance from the subject (Otherwise they frighten). A good time to photograph insects is in the morning. That is the time they still have to warm up before they can fly, and they remain sitting pretty still for a longer time.